Geography 353 Cartography and Visualization

...to Geog 353 Main Page and Course Description
...to Geog 353 Syllabus
...to Geog 353 Course Schedule and Lecture Outlines
...to Geog 353 Laboratory Information and Student Projects


Geog 353 Lecture Outline: Type on Maps
Update: 10/5/17

We will review chapter 11 (Type on Maps) from the Making Maps book. Additional information and examples can be gleaned from the material below.







Introduction

The role of typography in cartographic design


Type plays a large role in shaping the look and communicative abilities of a map


Four major issues



1. Functions of Map Lettering


1. Type on maps used for naming and labeling



2. Type on maps used to organize



3. Type on a map used to explain


4. Type on a map used to impart "visual atmosphere"



Project WWW Pages: effective use of type for naming, organizing, explaining, visual atmosphere


Consider typography to be another map symbol: it can be used to represent more than what the word means



The use of typography on a map has two broad facets




2. The Elements of Type


Typeface Characteristics

Type face or font: complete set of all characters of one size and design of a typeface




Type family: variations on a single typeface




Letterform Components:




The serif: finishing strokes added to the end of the main letter strokes




Key concern about type in cartography: the individual letters (and words) should be easily identifiable


Look at some of the ways we can manipulate type to make it work on maps...




3. Typographic Variables and Cartographic Design

Four typographic variables and associated design issues


Typography on maps can be effectively used to differentiate

1. qualitative (nominal) data


2. quantitative (ordinal, interval/ratio) data



1. Type Style and Cartographic Design

The history of type design and type style


Prior to printing presses most letters and words were created by hand



Black Letter or Gothic: 1400s: movable type designed to look like hand lettering


Oldstyle or Oldface: late 1400s to 1700s: designed to help with printing


Transitional: 1700s: bridge between oldstyle and modern type


Modern: late 1700s: modification of transitional


Sans Serif Styles




Type style implies qualitative (nominal) differences


Summary...

Consider two basic type styles

1. serif type: type with those little thingamabobs (serifs):


2. sans serif type: type without those little thingamabobs (san serif):


Type style is best used to symbolize qualitative information:


Type style may also be used to symbolize the "look and feel" of the map:



Details on design considerations of type style...




2. Type Size and Cartographic Design

The way type size is determined is based on the way type was originally produced


Type size determined by height of the foundry block


Type size variations imply ordered (quantitative) relationships



Summary...



Details on design considerations of type size...




3. Type Weight and Cartographic Design

The use of light (not always available), regular, and bold type weights implies quantitative (ordinal, interval/ratio) differences


Summary...



Details on Design considerations of type weight...




4. Type Form and Cartographic Design

Type form can imply qualitative (nominal) and quantitative (ordinal, interval/ratio) differences.


Summary...

Case: UPPER CASE vs. lower case



Tint: black vs. grey vs. red



Italics vs plain type forms



Spacing: condensed vs. e x t e n d e d


Details on design considerations of type forms...


...on Case



...on Tint




...on Italics vs. Plain (Roman)




...on Spacing




Arcview Demo: Type Style, Size, Weight, Form



4. Explanatory Text and Type Placement on Maps

4a. Explanatory Text

Explanatory text explains the content and purpose of a map:

Explanatory Text on a Map



4b. Type Placement

Effective type placement clarifies the relationship between a label and the symbol (point, line, area) to which it refers.


Labeling Point Features



When labeling point symbols on a map, start at the center of the map and work outward.



Type placement should reflect characteristics of the location being labeled:



B. Labeling Linear Features


When labeling lines, curve or slant the type to follow the symbol



Since there are fewer type descenders than ascenders, place labels for linear symbols above the symbol; fit the descenders into the symbol



Horizontal type is easiest to locate and read. Never place type upside down. If vertical, place first letter of label towards bottom of map



Repeat, rather than space out label along a linear symbol



C. Labeling Areal Features


When labeling areas on maps, curve and space the type to fit the areas to ensure that the area and the label are clearly associated.


Poor and Good Type Placement when Labeling Areas



Overlapping areas can be distinguished by varying type variables such as size, weight, and form.



Linear areas should be labeled like line symbols.



Conclusions

Technological change in typography

Extremely easy to manipulate typography on maps given computer technologies

Ten years ago: type set on typesetter


Bitmapped or screen type (raster)


Scalable or outline (vector) type


Digital Type: Much easier to use the guidelines outlined above



E-mail: jbkrygier@owu.edu

...to Geog 353 Main Page and Course Description
...to krygier teaching page.
...to krygier top page.

OWU Home
OWU Geology and Geography Home