Geography 111:
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Geog 111 Exam 2 Review
Update: 11/11/05

General Comments on Exam 2:

This review may be updated prior to Exam.

The exam consists of multiple choice and short answer and label the diagram questions, much like the first exam.

The following review touches on relevant concepts, definitions, ideas, etc. You will, of course, have to refer back to your notes and the lecture outlines for the details.

You are expected to know what was discussed in lecture which is more than is in the lecture outlines on the WWW, and you should expect to use the assigned readings to back up the material discussed in lecture. Pay particular attention to the diagrams which are noted in the lecture outlines and in the review below. I do not expect you to know information from the readings that were not discussed in lecture.

Students who have done best on my exams in the past have taken the time to rewrite their notes along with the lecture outlines, and have clarified missing details from their notes by contacting me (in person or via email) before the exam. Simply glancing over lecture outlines from the course WWW does not seem to be the best way to study for this course.

Do contact me (email is best) if you have any questions or problems in preparing for the exam:

Introduction to Landform Study

1. Earth and its Interior

2. Composition of the Earth's Crust

3. Additional Critical Concepts for Landform Study

4. The Process of Studying Landforms

Several important aspects

4a. Knowing Where particular landforms are

4b. Knowing What the characteristics of the landforms are

4c. Knowing Why the landform came to be

Internal Processes: Building up Earth's Landforms

1. Crustal Rearrangement: Earth's dynamic crust and the consequences

2. Vulcanism: origin and movement of molten rock

a. Volcanic Processes: Extrusive Vulcanism: Surface

b. Plutonic Processes: Intrusive Vulcanism: Sub-surface

3. Diastrophism

3a. Folding: solid rock gets bent

3b. Faulting: crustal stresses also lead to rock being broken

Prominent Faulted Landforms:

4. The Complexes of Crustal Configuration: SKIP THIS SECTION FOR EXAM 2

Weathering, Mass Wasting, and Erosion

Denudation: disintegration, wearing away, and removal of rock material; implies a lowering of earth's surface

1. Weathering: processes that break up rock at the earth's surface

1a. A Typology of Cracks and Crevices in Rock:

1b. Weathering Agents

2. Mass Wasting: processes that move fragmented rock short distances down slope

3. Erosion

Fluvial Processes: any environmental processes involving the flow of water

1. Impact of Fluvial Processes on the Landscape

1a. Traditional Theory of Landform Development: The Geomorphic Cycle

1b. Critique of Davisian Theory: Crustal Change and Slope Development

1c. Equilibrium Theory

2. Fundamental Definitions and Concepts of Fluvial Processes

3. Stream Channels: Key Characteristics of individual streams and rivers

4. Stream Systems: how streams and rivers relate to each other

5. Shaping and Reshaping of Valleys by Fluvial Processes

Karst and Hydrothermal Processes: The effect of Underground Water on landforms

1. Karst Processes and Landscapes

Related to chemical weathering: breakdown and removal of rock due to chemical reaction between water and rock

Relatively widespread effect on earth's surface

1a. Solution and Precipitation

1b. Caverns and Related Features

1c. Karst Topography

2. Hydrothermal Features

In essence: underground water heated by magma then forced to earth's surface

4a. Hot Springs

4b. Geysers

4c. Fumaroles

Desert Landforms

1. The Work of Water in Dry Regions: Fluvial Processes

Key: despite its scarcity, water is the most important external landform shaping agent in dry regions of the world

1a. Surface Water in Deserts

1b. Fluvial Erosion in Arid Lands

1c. Fluvial Deposition in Arid Lands

1d. Desert Fluvial Landforms: Basin and Range Terrain

1e. Desert Fluvial Landforms: Mesa and Scarp Terrain

2. The Work of the Wind in Dry Regions: Aeolian Processes

Aeolian processes: related to the movement of air over the earth's surface

Most effective where surface material is fine, dry and not held in place by vegetation

2a. Aeolian Erosion and Transportation

2b. Aeolian Deposition

2c. Desert Aeolian Landforms

Glaciers and Glacial Landforms

The role of ice, and in particular moving ice - glaciers - in shaping landforms

What we can see today in the landscape is the result of existing glaciers

1. Glaciers Formation and Flow

Glaciers form when there is a year to year accumulation of snow

Overall result of glacial flow is a form of erosion by water

2. Mountain Glaciers

3. Continental Ice Sheets and Glaciers

3a. Development and Flow of Pleistocene Glaciation

3b. Erosion by Ice Sheets

...transportation by glaciers...

3c. Deposition by Ice Sheets and Glaciers during Pleistocene: McKnight fig. 19.18

Unstratified, no patterns:

Unstratified, patterns:

Stratified, patterns due to glacial runoff:

E-mail: Geog 111 Main Page and Course Description krygier teaching page. krygier top page.

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